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By Iva Jovović, Guest Blogger*

In Croatia, the criminalization of sex work creates an unjust and gendered relationship between those engaging in the industry and the state. Sex workers, who are primarily female, face prosecution that often includes fines and jail time. In contrast, their customers rarely encounter consequences, unless they engage in sex with minors or victims of sexual exploitation. Living in a strict, conservative, and predominantly Catholic society, makes issues such as sex work and related terms a taboo subject within public and private conversations. The industry itself remains largely underground; women hide in the dark and buyers in cars. To most, sex workers are simply invisible. Due to this hostile environment, little research has previously been conducted on the sex industry in Zagreb—until now. Our organization, FLIGHT, implemented the first research project on sex workers and their clients, asking them why they got engaged with sex work, why they buy sex services, and their personal opinion on legislation. We also asked should sex work be legalized and should buyers be criminalized. Interviews were conducted from the end of March through May 2018, in public spaces, private, and offices of the respondents. In all, 15 female sex workers and 30 male buyers participated in the study.

Our Findings

Many pathways lead women to enter the sex industry, but poverty is a primary factor. Within Croatian society, sex work is perceived in a negative light, but our findings showed women were more concerned with the stigma around being poor. The women interviewed said they engaged in sex work because they are without a job and have huge debts. Many women indicated a lack of other employment opportunities and the need to take care of children. They needed the money and had few alternative options. One woman specifically needed to buy drugs, and others had no place to stay after residential care or moving away from a violent partner. Although social inclusion is a cornerstone of religious beliefs, the stigma of poverty overshadowed the stigma of being a sex worker. These results conflicted with expectations of a Catholic country with conservative and patriarchal structures.

People close to an individual can also play a significant role in influencing one to enter the industry. In six of the fifteen cases, a close friend (5) or a partner (1) persuaded the women to engage in sex work. Two women found themselves within the organized sex industry after visiting a party or responding to a modelling ad. Only two women independently decided to start with sex work after having various sexual experiences.

On the opposing side of the relationship, there are two main reasons why buyers engage in sex work: compensation and hedonism. A little more than half said they felt it compensated for a void in their life. Some of the examples provided include being single, lacking success with intimate relationships, marital issues, or having no time or desire for emotional commitment. Many of these men see their interactions with sex workers as a sort of intimate relationship involving spending private time together. The remaining men in our study said their primary motivation was hedonistic in nature. They were enticed by a sense of fun, pleasure, satisfaction, fulfillment of sexual desires, excitement, or curiosity.

Sex workers are aware of and face many risks in their job. Sex workers can face aggression from clients and pimps, as well as a risk of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Thus, 80 percent of those we interviewed expressed concern about their personal safety. The majority of their fear is connected to physical and financial issues. The women shared a concern about violent clients that may not want to pay. In addition, they feared being poor, especially as they become older. The lower socio-economic status can exacerbate their vulnerability to other crimes and being exploited. However, they are aware that sex work is not a lifelong solution and eight respondents (53%) showed concern about lack of money, lack of perspective, and lack of solutions for their retirement age: ˝I am afraid because of everything: if someone recognises me, of violent clients, of other sex workers because relations are disastrous. Of getting old, sickness…˝ Other sources of their concern are disease, prison, fear that someone would recognise them, fear from other sex workers, and unwillingness to continue with sex work in certain situations.

It is significant to mention that all respondents (100%) said that they have some concern about their health. These worries are connected with having no health insurance, feeling shame in front of medical staff, having other physical diseases, and having mental health problems connected with lack of perspective, anxiety and hostility toward their job. From our respondents, ten sex workers have medical insurance, but five do not.

It is these fears and concerns that sex workers feel the legalization of sex work would help address. The majority of the women interviewed believe it would improve working conditions, social rights, access to health insurance, and protection. One such example would be by reframing their relationship with police and clients. Some of the women interviewed relayed stories of police chasing, verbally harassing, and arresting them. Clients also engage in degrading behavior, including insulting the women and calling them worthless. In addition, five sex workers stressed how legal measures could ensure fair and loyal competition on the market, balanced prices, and protection of domestic sex workers from foreigners. They also suggested additional measures, such as providing social rights and combating corruption.

Conclusion

These findings provide clearer insight into the Croatian sex industry and will allow policymakers to more accurately address these issues. It is vital that the voices of sex workers continue to be heard and that laws affecting them are crafted through a worker-informed lens. For the first time, these findings can help alter how Croatian society understands an industry that faces stigmatization and discrimination. In order to provide greater protection for the women involved, we must continue to paint a fuller picture of the entire industry.

*Iva Jovovic holds a MA in Social Work, and has extensive research experience in and knowledge of harm reduction programs and human rights for key populations affected by HIV. The Life Quality Improvement Organization FLIGHT is a member of the Project DESIrE Consortium. FLIGHT has been implementing harm reduction programs since 2003 by providing outreach services to both drug users and sex workers.

** The views and opinions expressed in this blog do not necessarily reflect the position of the HTC.

Edited by Leah Breevoort, Deputy Director

Photo Credit: Project DESIrE


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

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By Sibel Top, Guest Blogger*

Rob Wainright, former director of Europol, warned that “technology has lowered the bar of entry to the criminal world”. Traffickers are making the most out of available technologies to lure potential victims into trafficking. Those who are working every day to fight human trafficking seem to be lagging behind. Rather than waiting for traffickers one step ahead, they are attempting to catch up with the technology traffickers use. Individuals working in the field to fight human trafficking do not necessarily have the required expertise or human resources to chase traffickers online, nor the financial capacity to stop them. Imagine fighting an army of drones with a slingshot; it is an unequal battle. This leaves law enforcement and public authorities in a tough position. What can they do without the expertise, the necessary human resources or the financial means to get traffickers? A potential solution is to partner with a stakeholder that could provide access to automated and scalable technology, thereby requiring minimum human supervision and expertise.

Public and Private Partnerships

The first step of this endeavor would be for public authorities to partner with a stakeholder – private or public – who already has or can develop this kind of technological expertise.  Fortunately, there are possibilities to find funding at the international or supranational levels for such initiatives. The United Nations (UN), for example, launched the Blockchain for Humanity – Global Challenge project, which is now funding a joint project partnering Consensys, a Brooklyn-based software company, with the Moldovan government to create digital identities for undocumented children in Moldova.

The technology developed by Consensys and used by Moldovan authorities will secure a digital ID on Blockchain for undocumented children in Moldova who are particularly vulnerable to trafficking. Whenever a child with a digital ID is about to cross a border, their information will be stored on the Blockchain, enabling authorities to easily trace the victim. In order to prevent the child from being trafficked in the first place, developers envision linking the identity to a system of permissioned transaction, which sends a notification to child guardians who would need to give their approval for the border crossing. There are obvious problems already identifiable in this, such as when children are trafficked by family members, but it presents the advantage of creating an automated system that does not require a large amount of human capacity for operation and provides storage of information which enables law enforcement to trace traffickers.

Automation and Scalability

The second aspect of this potential solution is automation and scalability. If the authorities are provided with tools to enable automated research that can target traffickers or “follow the money” with minimum human supervision, they would not need enhanced human resources to fight trafficking on a larger scale. For example, Rebecca Portnoff and her team at Berkeley developed an automated and scalable tool for clustering sex advertisements by owners. Her system is comprised of two techniques. The first is a machine learning classifier using stylometry to identify whether sex advertisements have been written by the same or different authors. If the same author wrote and published many advertisements for different sex workers across different locations, this could indicate a trafficking ring operating behind the advertisement.

The second technique links bitcoin accounts to the advertisements they paid for. This technology has yet to be implemented at a large scale, but it presents undeniable advantages such as the automation of operations and their scalability. The idea is to link advertisements to specific Bitcoin transactions by using the available information on them in the mempool: the price and the time the transaction was made. This makes it possible to identify to what advertisement a transaction was linked because, on advertisement websites such as Backpage, the system does not wait for the network to confirm the transaction, it directly posts the advertisement instead. In comparing timestamps of the appearance of advertisements on websites with payments enables one to identify the transaction linked to each advertisement. For example, if several advertisements from different locations were paid for by the same Bitcoin wallet this could be a sign of trafficking activities.   

These two techniques developed by Portnoff can be used in conjunction or separately. Their undeniable advantage lies in their automation and scalability. In this regard, automated techniques, such as PhotoDNA, have already been used to identify online victims of child sexual abuse and it is only a matter of time before those fighting human trafficking are able to utilize these tools in their work.

Conclusion

These projects are currently either in stages of development or in the first phases of implementation, but their potential opens a way forward in the fight against human trafficking. They arm law enforcement and NGO workers with tools that are more than slingshots and could potentially enable them to overcome two problems at once: the lack of expertise and the lack of human resources. The expertise will definitely be provided by the technologies themselves, while their automation and scalability would remedy the need for human resources. It is likely that these tools would mostly deploy their full potential for purposes of identification and prove to be less effective when used for prevention. However, they pave the way on how human trafficking could be combated in the future throughout its various stages.

 

*Sibel Top is  a Ph.D. fellow at the Research Foundation, Flanders (FWO). She is part of the research group on Fundamental Rights and Constitutionalism (FRC) at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), which is coordinating the DESIrE project on human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. This blogpost was based on a briefing paper prepared in the framework of the DESIrE project on the use of technology to combat human trafficking.

** The views and opinions expressed in this blog do not necessarily reflect the position of the HTC.

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Research and Projects

Photo Credit: Project DESIrE


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

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By Rosie O’Connor, Director of Educational Programming

Private immigration detention facilities in recent years have made up to 25% of their total profits, an estimated $30 to $77 million, from utilized detainee sanitation and work programs. For example, throughout November 2012, if GEO Group had hired outside janitors and maintenance employees at their Denver Contract Detention Facility, they would have spent over $125,000 in wages and benefits. Instead, they spent about $1,680 for those services by coercing or forcing detainees to work for wages of $1/day.

Private detention facilities are exploiting labor to reduce costs and increase profits at the expense of the rights of detainees. Furthermore, U.S. immigration policies and enforcement are integral to these systems of exploitation by virtually assuring the companies a steady influx of exploitable labor, via contract line items such as minimum occupancy rates at detention centers. The U.S. government is currently supporting a system wherein private prison companies gain from contract payment and a steady stream of detainable exploitable individuals.

What’s Happening?

Currently there are seven open lawsuits alleging  forced labor exploitation in immigration detention centers in Georgia, California, Washington, Colorado and Texas. All of these centers are managed by either GEO Group or CoreCivic (previously Corrections Corporations of American or CCA). While the foundation of each case varies, with some relying on the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and others focusing on unjust enrichment or minimum wage violation, they all highlight institutionalized, oppressive exploitation. This exploitation is a result of multi-level intersectional policy by the U.S. government and private companies that propagate a capitalist agenda.

There are two primary legal defenses for these exploitative programs, the 13th Amendment and Alvarado Guevara v. I.N.S. The 13th Amendment states that forced labor can be used as punishment for a crime. However, the legal ‘forced servitude’ in the 13th Amendment applies only to those who have been ‘duly convicted’ of a crime, which does not apply to those in detention. In Guevara v. I.N.S, the argument challenged the compensation as a violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act. In this case the judge ruled that the detainees could not be considered employees because, as undocumented individuals, it was illegal for the US government to hire them.

The Programs

These companies have two primary programs mentioned in the lawsuits: sanitation unit programs and ‘voluntary’ work programs. The sanitation unit program is a system designed to uphold the seemingly innocuous requirement of keeping a clean sleeping area. However, based on testimony of detainees, the program is implemented through guards arbitrarily selecting detainees to clean the sleeping areas on a daily basis for no pay. The detainees report being threatened with solitary confinement if they do not comply. The ‘voluntary’ work programs allow detainees to work within the detention center doing maintenance and janitorial duties for a fixed wage of $1-$3 a day for anywhere from 2-8 hours a day. The work programs are technically voluntary, but individuals report feeling coerced or required to work in order to pay for basic necessities like toothpaste or sanitary napkins.

Policy and Enforcement

Recent policy shifts around immigration and detention have worked to benefit private companies and politicians, and have created the opportunity for the current exploitative system. In 2009, and again in 2015, Congress voted for a ‘detention bed quota’, requiring the U.S. Department of Health Services (DHS) to maintain at least 34,000 beds for detention. Given detention is one of the least cost effective monitoring methods for immigration court, Assistant Professor of Law Anita Sinha suggests that members of congress were motivated to support the policy because of  the financial gains and job opportunities this initiative created for their constituents. However, some of the strongest lobbyists for and greatest beneficiaries of this policy were the private prison companies who maintain over 65% of these beds. Furthermore, this coincided with a billion dollar increase to the U.S. border patrol program budget, and, consequently, the combination of these policy shifts and funding increases has resulted in an influx of individuals coming into private detention facilities.

Profit as Motivation

The capitalist motivations of this system are integral to its persistence. In focusing on the privatization of prisons there is a clear shift toward more traditional economic initiatives, like delivering the most financially efficient, low cost, high profit product, and private prison companies are succeeding in this endeavor. A December 2016 evaluation by the Homeland Security Council reports that private detention centers cost roughly $40 less per person per day to maintain than the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) maintained centers. However, the same report suggested there was a need for more oversight and involvement of ICE in the private detention centers. The recommendations suggest there is a lack of accountability of private contractors and a need for more formalized inspections of the private institutions.

Conclusions

While more inspections may ensure better adherence to the Performance-Based National Detention Standards, there is evidence to suggest that the system is dependent on this exploitation and thus the lack of oversight may be integral to its survival. Alonzo Peña, a previous Deputy Director of ICE, suspects a pattern of private companies hiring former immigration officials for suspect motives. In addition, Andrew Free, an attorney involved in one of the cases suggests that without the exploited labor of the detainees the companies would be operating at a loss. With the current dependence on private detention centers to hold the detained population, it seems unlikely that there will be any significant recourse to a failure to uphold standards. The current system has questionable accountability and a complicated interworking system of seemingly independent profit driven policies, individuals, and corporations that foster the continued exploitation, marginalization and oppression of the detained population.

*The views and opinions expressed in this blog do not necessarily reflect the position of the HTC.

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Research and Projects

Photo Credit: flickr


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

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This post was originally published on this site

 

By Kara Gronborg, Guest Blogger*

President Obama stated in 2012, “Our fight against human trafficking is one of the great human rights causes of our time.” Legislators in each state have rallied and recognized the serious nature of human trafficking and have created laws advocating for and protecting victims. However, an important class is often forgotten: America’s youth. By properly knowing how to identify victims, social workers can help keep many children safe from human trafficking.

United States Human Trafficking Laws

The federal human trafficking law, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) states sex trafficking is, “a commercial sex act [that] is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age.” While the federal law protects victims under the age of 18, individual states are not required to follow federal law, leaving many states with criminal codes that do not recognize children as sex trafficking victims.

Currently, 15 out of 50 states have created laws protecting children from being prosecuted for teenage prostitution. However, the legal age of consent in every state differs between the ages of 16-18. Therefore, many children forced into prostitution cannot legally consent, but are still charged with sex crimes. This gap between state legislation comes at the cost of children who are being wrongfully prosecuted.

The Welfare System and Child Sex Trafficking

Child victims of human trafficking are often troubled youth that have gone through the foster care system, have high rates of poverty, or have been through the juvenile detention system. Often these children have been seen by multiple social service agencies in the past. However, social workers are not actively looking for the signs of human trafficking.  These children are unlikely to identify themselves as victims to law enforcement or social services because they likely see their exploitation as a means of surviving without the support of family or surrounding community. These children may also feel that the current social system has not adequately supported and identified them, which promotes a lack of trust in social services or law enforcement.

60 percent of child sex trafficking victims rescued during 2013 across 72 cities were previously a part of group homes or in foster care. 50 percent of homeless youth in Salt Lake City reported having been solicited for sex by an adult. Many of these at-risk individuals go unidentified before and after becoming victims of human trafficking. This problem represents the lacking abilities and training current social service workers have in identifying at-risk individuals and victims, and is a problem that also rings true for law enforcement.

When law enforcement first encounter children involved in sex trafficking, the official should identify the potential victims and refer them to social services for support. However, law enforcement, lacking training and options, often leave children involved in sex trafficking to go unidentified. Many children are charged with prostitution and put into juvenile detention centers or jail with little to no protections that they should be guaranteed under the TVPA.

Children Face Prostitution Charges in Courts

While significant strides have been made in identifying and prosecuting child human trafficking, many areas are still lacking. The TVPA exists to protect child victims, however, these protections are not often granted in juvenile courts where the notion of teenage prostitution persists. Juvenile prostitution falls under the jurisdiction of juvenile courts in most states, therefore many children are prosecuted for prostitution instead of being recognized as victims. These children are then put into juvenile detention centers or jails; furthering their distrust of law enforcement and social services.

Social Services Can Do Better

Individual states should be acknowledged for recognizing human trafficking as a crime. However, there are other equally important aspects that need attention. Child victims of sex trafficking, are already vulnerable and have been subject to countless abuses. Social workers have a unique advantage in identifying and supporting at-risk children and victims as they are present in many parts of these children’s lives. While every trafficked person is different, there are certain warning signs that are common among victims that social workers need to look out for. With proper training and legal avenues, social service workers and law enforcement can work together to save children before they become victims of trafficking, and better assist children who have already been victimized.

In most states, social service workers are not trained to identify victims or the support avenues available for victims. Legislation is starting to address the criminalization of youth in sex trafficking through safe harbor and victim centered laws, however, extra support through social services is also desperately needed to ensure children are given the help and support they deserve. This can be achieved through better equipping social service workers with the necessary skills and training to better identify warning signs of at-risk-children and victims of human trafficking.

*Kara Gronborg is a graduate student at the University of Pittsburgh School of Public and International Affairs pursuing a Masters of Public and International Affairs with a focus on Security and Intelligence Studies. This blog is Part 5 in a series of guest blogs written by graduate students from the University of Pittsburgh advised by Assistant Professor Dr. Luke Condra. The views and opinions expressed in this blog do not necessarily reflect the position of the HTC.

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Communications and Social Media

Photo Credit: FreeImages.com


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

Note: There is a print link embedded within this post, please visit this post to print it.


This post was originally published on this site

 

By Andrea Paolini, Guest Blogger*

We tell stories to help locate and make sense of our worlds. Because the human narrative can be as liberating as it is trapping, how we tell these stories matters as much as why we tell them.

Be a Good Guest

I enter the conversation as a doctoral student in composition and rhetoric studies. My research explores the intersections between writing and human rights. When seeking admission to a new discourse community, one needs to be prepared. To determine what a good guest brings, I begin by familiarizing myself with the Human Trafficking Center’s website and blog. I learn that the post with the highest Facebook reach is Her Body is Not for Sale, but Her Necklace Is, by research assistant Annalise Yahne. I read the post. Like many readers, I take offense. The author’s sweeping generalizations regarding the narrative framing practices of a single social enterprise organization is problematic. As its rhetorical device the post relies on making provocative claims—what it needed was a robust argument supported by evidence. How we tell stories matters as much as why we tell them.

Fortunately, the subsequent cross-talk between the author and readers on the blog’s discussion board offers an important opportunity to connect the how and why. How we frame the stories we tell can have real and serious consequences on the lives of victims, survivors, and their supporters. Sarah Lance, founder and managing director of Sari Bari, offered a powerful rebuttal in defense of her organization and its work with trafficked and exploited women.

Tell a Good Story

The stories we tell can captivate an audience’s attention and move them to action. But they can also cause harm and perpetuate misunderstanding. I chose to enter the conversation by revisiting this post from a year ago, because issues of representation, voice, and agency remain hugely relevant. Dr. Annjanette Alejano-Steele, co-founder and board member of the Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking, offers a poignant reminder of this. In a recent blog post, Not My Story to Tell: How to Rethink the Ways We Support Survivors, she reflects upon a panel invitation to “share a real life story of human trafficking,” as a way of contextualizing and raising awareness to a public audience.

But Whose Story Is It?

The stories we tell in support of victim and survivor rights can both champion and sabotage their agency. We need to protect their stories and recognize how speaking for them has the potential to further exploit. And so, more than a style guide, we need a code of ethical conduct by which to guide our writing, our work, and our shared goals. Within this, let’s define and prioritize good storytelling practices. What methodologies can ensure that we respectfully represent the victim and survivor points of view? How can we create a space in which they may tell their own? Because isn’t this what makes the best story? And when this is not possible, how do we remain good guests in a story that is not ours?

Towards Shared Goals

Something that I do think Yahne and critics share, is a desire to support survivors through rehabilitative means. The field of rehabilitation needs further activist research and recommendations by academics and practitioners. It also requires greater material supports and services. Social enterprise organizations like Sari Bari and Thistle Farms have an important role to play by extending economic opportunities that are necessary to rebuild lives and restore agency.

Agency in Storytelling

The concept of agency is critical to how I approach the issue and study of human trafficking. Is there a place for writing as part of the rehabilitative process for victims and survivors? Can human rights storytelling, specifically the act of writing, offer them a tool for processing and making sense of their worlds? Can it help them to document and disseminate their own stories—as part of public awareness campaigns, and in support of legal proceedings? Am I being too optimistic (or simply naïve) in chasing these interdisciplinary goals? Let’s begin a dialogue and share examples of how this might be possible. And to organizations like Sari Bari and Thistle Farms, would you be open to incorporating a writing project as part of your rehabilitative services? Please leave a comment.


*Andrea Paolini is a PhD student at the University of Pittsburgh. This blog is Part 4 in a series of guest blogs written by graduate students from the University of Pittsburgh advised by Dr. Luke Condra.

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Communications and Social Media

Photo Credit: Andrea Paolini


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

Note: There is a print link embedded within this post, please visit this post to print it.


This post was originally published on this site

 

By Cecily Bacon, Director of Research and Projects and Leah Breevoort, Deputy Director

The greatly anticipated 2018 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report was released by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) at the end of June. As mandated by the U.S. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000, the TIP Report is an annual publication of the DOS ranking country-level anti-trafficking efforts. In order to analyze and rank countries, the State Department examines their efforts through the “3 P’s”: Prosecution, Protection, and Prevention. The report includes narratives for 187 countries, and ranks them on a scale of Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 2 Watch List, Tier 3 and Special Case, with Tier 1 being the highest ranking and Tier 3 being the lowest ranking.* This reporting period, which covered from April 1, 2017 through March 2018, revealed 29 countries that improved their standings and 20 countries that digressed to a lower ranking.

The focus of this year’s report was on how local communities can effectively address human trafficking, as well as how governments can support and empower those actions. However it was the report’s substantial analysis on the long-term emotional and mental health effects of separating children from their parents and/or detaining them, as well as how this increases their vulnerability to trafficking, that received the most attention. The findings come at a particularly poignant time, as the U.S government responds to a policy that separated thousands of children from their parents as the families illegally crossed the U.S–Mexico border.

Here are some of the country rankings to note from the 2018 TIP Report:

Bahrain Upgraded to Tier 1

Bahrain, upgraded from Tier 2 to Tier 1, is the first country in the region to receive a Tier 1 ranking and be acknowledged as fully compliant with the minimum standards of the TVPA. While this news came as a surprise to some, it was widely congratulated by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) as an example of effective labor market reform. Over the last three years, the Government of Bahrain and IOM have been working together on improving protections for victims of human trafficking. While these improvements included the establishment of an assistance fund and the development of a National Referral Mechanism, it is reforms to the labor markets which received substantial recognition. Through the Flexible Work Permit, migrant workers are able to sponsor themselves in Bahrain for a two-year period. The enactment of this permit was designed to grant workers more autonomy, and combat the kafala system, which had increased the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labor by tethering them to their employers.

Japan Upgraded to Tier 1

For the first time in 17 years Japan was upgraded from Tier 2 to Tier 1. Ever since Japan was first ranked in the 2001 TIP Report as a Tier 2 country, they continued to fall short of the minimum standards for being considered compliant with the TVPA. For the first three years, Japan received a Tier 2 ranking, until 2004 when the Tier 2 Watch List designation was created. Japan became the only developed country to receive this ranking. Japan’s upgraded ranking this year is heavily tied to the country’s creation of an interagency task force designed to combat enjo kōsai, also known as compensated dating, and joshi kōsei, which is a dating service that connects adult men with female high school students. However, despite this progress, the 2018 report also acknowledged concerns that the Japanese government is not taking sufficient measures to convict traffickers, as they continue to receive insufficient or suspended sentences.

Ireland Downgraded to Tier 2

In response to continued concerns of government failure to protect victims of human trafficking and forced labor, Ireland was downgraded from Tier 1 to Tier 2. This ranking was praised by the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF) and the Joint Oireachtas Committee, both of whom had previously released reports on the problematic practices of the Irish fishing industry. Migrant workers remain vulnerable to forced labor within the Irish fishing industry as a result of government immigration actions that allow employers to sponsor workers, and the limited registration of these workers. TIP Report findings also highlighted government prosecution of migrant workers for the cultivation of cannabis, which ignored indications that the workers were victims of human trafficking. The Irish high court and the Council of Europe raised additional concerns regarding anti-trafficking efforts in Ireland, specifically that the current services in place to support victims are inadequate.

Thailand Upgraded to Tier 2

After two consecutive years on the Tier 2 Watch List, Thailand upgraded to a Tier 2 ranking. Over the last few years, the Thai fishing industry has faced harsh criticism following investigations into human trafficking and forced labor on fishing vessels and in processing facilities, news which contributed to Thailand receiving a Tier 2 ranking in both 2014 and 2015. However, this year’s TIP Report acknowledged improvements within the Thai government through its increased efforts at prosecution of offenders and victim protection. Furthermore, the report also addresses the increase in prevention of human trafficking through increased funding for anti-trafficking initiatives and migrant labor management.

Despite the increase in anti-trafficking efforts by the Thai government, the report recognizes that concerns of corruption within the government are preventing further improvement. Additional critiques of Thailand’s improved ranking have come from the International Labor Rights Forum (ILRF), which states that the government continues to bring cases against those who reveal situations of human trafficking and labor abuse. The ILRF also criticizes Thailand’s upgrade in pointing to the defamation cases that are often brought against victims of forced labor by their previous employers as a result of victims speaking out about their experiences.

United States Maintained Tier 1

Once again the United States received a Tier 1 ranking. However, within the U.S. some critics have questioned the credibility of the TIP Report this year given that the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons is still without a permanent ambassador. Furthermore, while the country narrative for the U.S. discusses the TVPA, it failed to acknowledge that while the TVPA is the backbone of the U.S. federal anti-trafficking response, the law has lapsed and is pending renewal in Congress. Additional critiques of the U.S. country narrative have arisen regarding the emphasis within this year’s TIP Report on the detrimental impact of separating children from their families and placing them in private or government-run institutions. While the report argues that the physical and psychological effects of separating children and placing them in these institutions increases their vulnerability to human trafficking, the report fails to address the detention facilities currently present along the southern border of the U.S., facilities where more than 2,300 children have been separated from their parents since April.

*For more information on the tier ranking of the TIP Report or the methodology used by the report, please refer to the 2018 TIP Report methodology section.

Photo Credit: Flickr


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

Note: There is a print link embedded within this post, please visit this post to print it.


This post was originally published on this site

 

By Pri Srinivasa, Guest Blogger*

Every year, 12 million girls are married globally under the age of 18. That is 28 girls every minute, one every two seconds. Child marriage is often stereotyped as a phenomenon of the underdeveloped world. The harsh reality, however, is that between 2000 to 2015 more than 207, 468 minors were married in the United States, 90% of whom were girls. Even these appalling figures are a gross underestimate of the child marriage crisis in America. This is no coincidence as 24 out of 50 states have no minimum age for marriage laws. On May 3, 2018 Delaware became the first state in the nation to abolish all forms of child marriage with no exceptions including that of parental consent. Will other states follow this groundbreaking legislation?

Child Marriage, defined as a matrimonial union occurring under the age of 18, is modern-day slavery. As a form of forced marriage, child marriage is an institution or practice in which individuals, mainly girls, do not have the ability to refuse matrimony. Known as servile marriage, forced early marriage revokes consent of the child and limits ability to terminate marriage, enforces ‘ownership’ post-matrimony by the groom, and exploits the girl bride for domestic labor and sex.

In order to end child marriage in America, the legal age of marriage must be set to 18, the legal age of matrimony according to international law, and parental consent must be abolished along with all conceived ‘exceptions’ in all 50 states.

Child Marriage as American as Apple Pie

Child marriage is interwoven into the fabric of American identity politics, and it continues to persist despite efforts to end it. While advocates continuously lobby for states to raise the marital age above adolescence, parental consent in every American state enables early marriage. Since January 2, 2018, 5 out of 10 state bills introduced in State Assemblies (Vermont, Tennessee, Maryland, New Jersey, and Arizona) called for the abolition of child marriage with no exceptions, but only the one in New Jersey has passed. This is typically due to strong pushback from Christian conservative groups. In Florida, for example, the Senate unanimously passed State Bill 140 on January 31, abolishing all marriage until the age of 18. However, this was amended on February 15, 2018 for 16 and 17 year-olds with parental consent and the involvement of pregnancy. Similarly, last year Governor Chris Christie vetoed an abolition bill with no exceptions because it did “not comport with the sensibilities and, in some cases, the religious customs, of the people of this State”.

It is important to note that states with the highest prevalence of child marriage, such as West Virginia, Texas, and Alabama, are home to religiously conservative communities who perceive marriage as a moralistic institution that “secures the girl into a happy and financially secure household”. Early marriage is viewed as preemptive to premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, and statutory rape. Furthermore, the consequences of soaring poverty rates limits girls’ opportunities for alternatives outside of marriage.

Parents as Human Traffickers and Murky Waters

In every state, an exception is made to child marriage when parental consent is present. This consent is murky, does not always take the child’s well-being into consideration, and in some cases protects statutory rapists. Heather Strawn was 14-years-old when she became pregnant with 24-year-old Aaron Seaton’s child after a sexual encounter involving heavy drinking, in which Heather did not remember the events that had followed. Her father, Keith Strawn, saw abortion as out of the question and rationalized the marriage as Bible-advised while protecting Aaron from statutory rape. Heather had feelings for Aaron because of the baby and agreed to the marriage. After Heather’s fifteenth birthday Keith took his daughter and Aaron to be married in Missouri, a 19-hour drive from their rural Idaho home.

Heather’s story is by no means an isolated case as it is reported in Missouri alone more than 1,000 15-year-olds between 1999 to 2015 have married statutory rapists with parental consent. The parent or guardian’s intention may be to “legitimize an unborn child through marriage” or to save face. However, regardless of parental consent, a child is still a child and the marriage of a child is human trafficking.

Abolish Parental Consent

Children do not possess the same agency that adults have to resist pressures of marriage. Furthermore, child marriage can lead to health risks such as complications from adolescent pregnancy because the teenage body is not fully equipped for delivery, as well as a higher prevalence in psychological issues such as clinical depression. By dropping out of school, minors limit opportunities for well-paying employment and often rely on government assistance.

The abolition of parental consent along with child marriage eliminates possible loopholes that allow for its proliferation. Laws are vital as they can safeguard minors from early marriage and hold families and communities accountable, especially if coupled with community education programs and child-bride rehabilitation. This has the ability to prevent further examples of Keith Strawns, and situations in which parents may feel the need to make life-altering decisions for daughters.

 

*Pri Srinivasa is a graduate student at the University of Pittsburgh School of Public and International Affairs. This blog is Part 3 in a series of guest blogs written by graduate students from the University of Pittsburgh advised by Dr. Luke Condra.

**The views and opinions expressed in this blog do not necessarily reflect the position of the HTC

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Communications and Social Media

Photo Credit: pixabay.com


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

Note: There is a print link embedded within this post, please visit this post to print it.


This post was originally published on this site

 

By Amanda Riehl, Guest Blogger*

The public typically gets its information about human trafficking, not through personal experiences or acquaintances, but rather through the media. As an issue that is not usually experienced first hand, media has the power to influence the public’s view of the problem, including how it is defined, observed, and responded to. As such, the media is responsible for presenting relevant stories and information that accurately portrays the reality of the numerous forms of human trafficking. Failure to represent the reality of the issue, including using sensationalism and a narrow lens in which to view human trafficking, fails to create proper public awareness.

What the Media Misrepresents

The media misrepresents many aspects of human trafficking.This includes the types of trafficking that occur, who is being trafficked, where trafficking occurs, as well as the context  surrounding it. Furthermore, the definition of human trafficking is rarely given as part of the story. When a definition is provided, the media oversimplifies the problem to describe prostitution, and portrays it as a byproduct of organized crime. The criminalized framing of human trafficking also leads the media to cite law enforcement, crime control, legislation and severe punishments to be the best solutions to the issue.

As the media presents it, commercial sex is the most prevalent form of human trafficking and those trafficked are women and children. The trafficked women are white, foreign born, innocent, naïve, sexually pure as opposed to sexually experienced, and portrayed as weak, vulnerable and passive. In news stories, those who traffic women and children are most frequently violent men of color in organized crime groups who come from poor backgrounds and do not know the trafficked person; this sets up a stereotypical view of who most likely is and is not a trafficker. When discussing location, news stories usually cite specific events like the Super Bowl and internet sites like backpage.com as the main areas where trafficking occurs, usually through the methods of kidnapping and deception. As a result of being fed these specific images of human trafficking and the circumstances under which the act happens, the public develops a precise response to the issue: feeling sympathy for survivors who have received media attention and criminalizing the perpetrators who the media has made visible.

What the Media Misses

In all the misrepresentation regarding human trafficking, the media misses a great deal of the realities of the issue. By associating human trafficking solely with crime, societal and structural causes of trafficking, such as poverty, oppression, homelessness, mental illness, and migration, are left out of the conversation and long term solutions related to these factors are not considered when developing anti-trafficking policy.

In its representation of human trafficking as being mostly commercial sex, the media completely misses other types of trafficking situations, such as forced labor (domestic, agriculture, textiles, construction, etc.), child marriage, child beggars, and others. Since these are less recognized forms of trafficking, there is less policy and protection for survivors of non-sex trafficking. The media has also warped the idea of who a trafficked person is or could be. Both men and women are trafficked and people of color are trafficked most frequently. These people can be either foreign or native born and they can be trafficked in any location, not only around special events and through shady internet sites. People are also likely to be trafficked by someone they know and trust. As for trafficking methods, while kidnapping and deception are used, the media frequently fails to mention coercive techniques, such as keeping people in captivity through threats of deportation, threatening to harm  family members, and debt bondage.

Implications

The implications of these misrepresentations and omissions in the media span much further than just misinforming the public for interest’s sake. Media informs people of issues in human trafficking that they most likely would not know about otherwise, and so it affects how the public responds to human trafficking. Likewise, it affects policies, agendas and how both trafficked persons and traffickers are treated, particularly in the legislative process.

Portraying a very specific type of survivor and perpetrator, rather than displaying the wide range of people who are affected by and participate in trafficking, has consequences for survivors and traffickers. If the trafficked person does not match the image of the ideal survivor (ethnicity, nationality, etc.) that the media has put out, they are likely to be met with less sympathy and less assistance. Similarly, if the perpetrator does not match the typical model of a trafficker (ethnicity, economic status, etc.), they might not be convicted or even accused in the first place. If widespread misinformation about human trafficking persists, both the public and policymakers will have an inaccurate understanding of the reality of the issue, and appropriate policies and legal measures aimed at preventing and combating human trafficking will not be implemented.

 

*Amanda Riehl is a Master of Public and International Affairs Candidate at the University of Pittsburgh School of Public and International Affairs. This blog is Part 2 in a series of guest blogs written by graduate students from the University of Pittsburgh advised by Assistant Professor Dr. Luke Condra.

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Communications and Social Media

Photo credit: flickr


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

Note: There is a print link embedded within this post, please visit this post to print it.


This post was originally published on this site

 

By Jacqueline Cohen, Guest Blogger*

Concealed behind the curtain of bloodshed, a piranha feeds on the despair fostered by war. Extreme internal conflict lays the foundation for human trafficking to thrive. The chaos, violence, and lack of enforced policy places people in a state of extreme vulnerability. The severe case of Syria is no exception. From child soldiering and sexual slavery within Syria to migrant smuggling between Syria and surrounding countries, refugees displaced by the Syrian Civil War are at a much higher risk to be exploited and trafficked. The desperation for food and shelter combined with the continuous closing of Middle Eastern, European and American borders has affected an environment abounding with parasitic opportunists waiting to take advantage of those who have lost everything.

A Look Inside Syria

Syria’s ongoing seven-year civil war has left the country dilapidated in war-torn remnants. With the conflict continuing to escalate, more and more civilians are forced to flee their homes. It is estimated that more than half of Syria’s population has been displaced, nearly a quarter of which have fled to the neighboring countries of Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq. Its citizens are homeless and lack basic resources such as food and medical aid. The borders surrounding Syria are becoming increasingly closed due to the massive emigration of refugees. Furthermore, the recent fear of Islamist extremism has resulted in tightened border control and restrictive migration policies in European countries, making it more difficult for Syrian refugees to be granted asylum. As a result, legal migration routes are sparse.

The multitude of armed forces attempting to exert control over various regions of Syria has had a particularly significant impact on child soldiering and sexual slavery. The recruitment and use of child soldiers has become somewhat of a norm in Syria. Extremist groups such as ISIS, pro- regime forces, and even Syrian government forces take advantage of displaced children utilizing them as soldiers, human shields and suicide bombers. Forced marriage and sexual slavery continue to increase as conflict escalates. Not only are young Syrian girls often forced into marriage with ISIS fighters, but ISIS routinely abducts women to trade for sexual exploitation within Syria and surrounding countries.

Limited Options

Syrian citizens have become unconscionable victims of politics and of a seemingly never-ending crusade for power. The degree of displacement and the lack of basic resources in Syria is astounding. Aid convoys have progressively been compelled to withdraw from unpredictable and perilous regions that are in desperate need of food and supplies, leaving Syrians desolate and hopeless. The struggle just to survive often propels people to employ desperate measures.

Refugee and migrant smuggling has become increasingly prevalent as a direct result of the war. In an attempt to remove themselves from the precarious situation in Syria, refugees have been forced to take illegal and oftentimes dangerous routes into other countries. The use of illegal passages offered by smugglers places Syrians at risk for exploitation and trafficking, which may begin in Syria and advance both during the passage out and upon arrival in the destination country.

The recruitment of Syrians for the purpose of trafficking is especially prevalent in the neighboring countries. Syrian refugees are particularly vulnerable to agencies that fraudulently promise to resettle them in another country with secure jobs. They are instead subjected to street begging, forced labour, or sexual exploitation. Forced labour, mainly in the form of agricultural work and textile factories, is accompanied by extremely poor working conditions and wages resulting in debt-bondage. While prostitution is masqueraded as temporary marriage in many cases.

The Passage Out of Syria

Due to the rapid and high influx of displaced Syrians, neighboring countries such as Lebanon and Jordan have created stricter visa requirements and entry grants for refugees. Because Turkey has accepted the highest volume of refugees it is near impossible to find work there. The only remaining option is to pay smugglers to lead them across the Aegean Sea into Greece with the hope of being granted asylum in Europe.

Smugglers take advantage of the desperate situation facing refugees and use it as a means for profit, sometimes charging thousands of euros for a passage out of shattered Syria. Smugglers assure them that they will be welcome in Europe and that they will be able to find decent work. But once they arrive in Greece they unwittingly become trapped there, a result of restrictive European migration policies. Women, especially those traveling alone or with children, as well as unaccompanied children, become vulnerable to sexual violence and trafficking. Migrants fear the police who often turn a blind eye to the astronomical exploitation, and even take part in coercive conduct.

Conclusions

The unremitting situation in Syria has resulted in vast desperation precipitating a gateway to exploitation. From child soldiering and sexual exploitation in Syria to refugee trafficking in surrounding countries, the effect of Syria’s formidable conflict is expansive. Any hope of amelioration, barring an end to Syria’s civil war, will require European and Middle Eastern countries to reevaluate their restrictive migration policies. For the welfare of countless innocent lives already distraught by war, it behooves society to figure out a way to safely and successfully integrate Syrian refugees into their communities.

 

*Jacqueline Cohen is a graduate student at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health pursuing a Master’s in Public Health Genetics and a Certificate in Global Health. This blog is Part 1 in a series of guest blogs written by graduate students from the University of Pittsburgh advised by Assistant Professor Dr. Luke Condra.

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Communications and Social Media

Photo Credit: flickr


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

Note: There is a print link embedded within this post, please visit this post to print it.


This post was originally published on this site

 

By Iva Jovović, Guest Blogger*

Sex workers present a hard to reach population, particularly in countries like the Republic of Croatia where advertising the prostitution of another person as well as the provision of sexual services are considered crimes. The topic of sex work is still highly stigmatized in Croatian society, and there are few organizations working on or advocating for this issue. As a result, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in the field, such as FLIGHT and HELP  have become crucial in reaching populations of sex workers impacted by serious health concerns like HIV and other STDs.

In a context where the object of protection is public order and peace, sex workers are offenders and punished with a misdemeanour, whereas perpetrators usually stand as prosecution witnesses and are not prosecuted. Some estimates by police, based on the number of arrests and anecdotal talks with sex workers, show that there are about 7,000 sex workers in Croatia and about 100, 000 of their clients. Currently, the NGO FLIGHT has 220 sex workers engaged in its outreach program, most of whom work in the streets of Zagreb. This includes some clients who are pimps and will collect condoms and lubricants from the outreach workers, and then distribute them among the sex workers who work for them.

The DESIrE Project

The Demand for Sexual Exploitation in Europe (DESIrE) project aims to generate a better understanding of the impact of different approaches to sex work legislation and policies on the prevalence of human trafficking. Currently the project is focused on four approaches in four different countries: the legalization of sex work in The Netherlands, legislation in Sweden targeting the perpetrators and criminalizing the demand side of sex work, the criminalization of sex workers in Croatia, and the approach of Poland in which sex work and the provision of sexual services is legal but profiting from the sex work of another individual is not. The results of the current research study should increase visibility of the targeted groups, such as sex workers and trafficking victims, as well as provide a needs assessment that will lead NGOs to develop new services.

With the DESIrE project, FLIGHT is working as one of five members in a consortium to increase programs for sex workers. At present the organization is focused on health issues, but in conducting research among sex workers will be able to better assess the needs for other services. FLIGHT’s work with sex workers is connected to the DESIrE project in that one form of sexual exploitation experienced by sex workers is being forced to have sexual intercourse without condoms, which can result in the transmission of diseases like HIV. When FLIGHT’s outreach workers go into the field and inform sex workers about health practices, ways of prevention, and offer condoms and other healthcare services, they are engaging in harm reduction. Infecting a sex worker with HIV increases her vulnerability by creating additional health-related costs and exposure to poverty. Furthermore, it increases her dependence on pimps and other facilitators, which can make it more difficult to leave an abusive situation.

Looking Forward

Through implementing the DESIrE research, the NGO FLIGHT anticipates having greater involvement with trafficking victims. Involvement that will create direct contact between victims and the NGO, so that newer and more comprehensive programs can be developed. One of the aims of this research is to collect data from all perspectives on sex work, sexual exploitation, trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation, and the impact of current laws and policies. Through this research FLIGHT hopes to gain valuable information and feedback on the kind of services needed in the field, and work towards their implementation.

 

*Iva Jovović is the Executive Director of the nongovernmental organization FLIGHT. For more information about the DESIrE project contact: info@project-desire.eu. For more information about FLIGHT contact: let@udruga-let.hr.

**The views and opinions expressed in this blog do not necessarily reflect the position of the HTC.

Edited by Cecily Bacon, Director of Communications and Social Media

Photo Credit: Project DESIrE

 


About the Human Trafficking Center

The Human Trafficking Center, housed in the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies, is the only two-year, graduate-level, professional-training degree in human trafficking in the United States. One way graduate students contribute to the study of human trafficking is by publishing research-based blogs. The HTC was founded in 2002 to apply sound research and reliable methodology to the field of human trafficking research and advocacy.

Founded in 1964, the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is one of the world’s leading schools for the study of international relations. The School offers degree programs in international affairs and is named in honor of its founder and first dean, Josef Korbel.

 

Note: There is a print link embedded within this post, please visit this post to print it.